FIM MotoGP World Championship
Le Mans, France
May 16, 2014
Free Practice Two Results (all on Bridgestone tires):
1. Marc MARQUEZ, Spain (HONDA), 1:33.452
2. Andrea IANNONE, Italy (DUCATI), 1:33.459
3. Alvaro BAUTISTA, Spain (HONDA), 1:33.668
4. Bradley SMITH, UK (YAMAHA), 1:33.920
5. Dani PEDROSA, Spain (HONDA), 1:33.942
6. Stefan BRADL, Germany (HONDA), 1:34.04
7. Jorge LORENZO, Spain (YAMAHA), 1:34.054
8. Andrea DOVIZIOSO, Italy (DUCATI), 1:34.117
9. Aleix ESPARGARO, Spain (FORWARD YAMAHA), 1:34.134
10. Valentino ROSSI, Italy (YAMAHA), 1:34.498
11. Pol ESPARGARO, Spain (YAMAHA), 1:34.506
12. Yonny HERNANDEZ, Colombia (DUCATI), 1:34.877
13. Cal CRUTCHLOW, UK (DUCATI), 1:34.907
14. Nicky HAYDEN, USA (HONDA), 1:34.961
15. Colin EDWARDS, USA (FORWARD YAMAHA), 1:35.089
16. Hiroshi AOYAMA, Japan (HONDA), 1:35.229
17. Scott REDDING, UK (HONDA), 1:35.424
18. Karel ABRAHAM, Czech Republic (HONDA), 1:35.818
19. Hector BARBERA, Spain (FTR-KAWASAKI), 1:36.418
20. Mike DI MEGLIO, France (FTR-KAWASAKI), 1:36.612
21. Michael LAVERTY, UK (PBM-APRILIA), 1:36.742
22. Broc PARKES, Australia (PBM-APRILIA), 1:37.136
More, from a press release issued by Repsol Honda:
Repsol Honda’s Marc Marquez leads the way in France
In an unusually sunny Le Mans, it was Championship leader and reigning World Champion, Marc Marquez, who was fastest in both sessions today with teammate Dani Pedrosa finishing second this morning and 5th in the combined times.
After a chilly morning with and ambient and track temperatures of just 12ºC and 13ºC respectively, temperatures rose in this afternoon’s FP2 session to 20ºC – air – and 39ºC on the track. Marc tested both option rear Bridgestone tyres but recorded his fastest time of 1’33.452 on lap 14 of 20 on the softer option – beating Dani’s record race lap from 2011 (1’33.617). It was a positive day also for Dani, who had surgery to treat compartmental syndrome in his right forearm last week. Again he used both option rear tyres and also preferred the softer, completing 22 laps in the afternoon with his best time of 1’33.942 arriving on lap 17.
FP3 will take place tomorrow morning at 09h55 local time.
1st - 1'33.452
“I felt comfortable right from the start today. We began with the base setup from Jerez and worked from there. In the afternoon we tried things out with the tyres and tweaked the setup further to keep going forward. Besides being the fastest over a single lap, our pace was also really good today, so I am happy with how everything went in general. Tomorrow we shall try to do even better, because I'm sure that the rest of the riders will take another step forward"
5th - 1'33.942
“Today was basically a day to see what kind of shape I am in, and it went well. For the first time using my arm in ten days, the feeling is okay. I took things carefully and didn't push too much, because I didn't want to go 100% too soon. The initial feeling was pretty good, and we hope that things will improve further overnight. In theory today should be the toughest day, and I hope to be better tomorrow. On track I focused on putting in a lot of laps, but without making too many changes to the bike. We basically tried out the tyres, and at the moment the soft option seems to be the most adequate”
More, from a press release issued by Monster Yamaha Tech 3:
Smith fastest Yamaha on day 1 at Le Mans
Monster Yamaha Tech3 rider Bradley Smith completed a fantastic first day rout at the legendary Le Mans circuit to cement himself as the leading Yamaha in the team’s home country of France. Having bounced back impeccably this afternoon from a crash in FP1, the young British rider remained resolute and after undertaking some key alterations to his Yamaha YZR-M1, he established a comfortable setup which gave him the confidence to push and post a best lap of 1:33,920. Smith’s time was a colossal improvement from this morning, and less than half a second from the leading bike of Marc Marquez. His top four result on the opening day sees his confidence sky high and well prepared for a full speed assault in tomorrow’s qualifying session, in view to the 28-lap sprint on Sunday.
Rookie Pol Espargaro proceeded to gather more valuable experience in only his fifth race in the premier class, and shaved off four tenths of a second from the initial time set in FP1 this morning. The reigning Moto2 World champion guided his Yamaha YZR-M1 around the stop and go Le Mans circuit, as he undertook a relentless effort to learn the track on a MotoGP bike. The 22-year-old Catalan finished in 11th with a time of 1.34,506, which was only 0.008 of a second behind multiple world champion Valentino Rossi, as he continues to stride forward in his inaugural MotoGP season. Tomorrow he assertively intends to seize a competitive grid position for race day at the Monster Energy sponsored Grand Prix.
Position : 4thTime :1'33.920 Laps : 37
"After starting the day in a less than ideal way, I am really pleased with what we managed to achieve this afternoon. I am feeling very happy with the bike now, as due to some of the issues we have experienced recently we decided to divert back to the what I was using in Qatar. Therefore, I am confident and I know that I can go fast with it. At the same time, I am slightly disappointed that we couldn’t succeed with our experimentation, but I am excited to continue in this manner during the next sessions. Tomorrow the plan is to fine-tune the setup and then try my best in qualifying to get as high up the grid as I can. Again, I feel confident, am back on the road to completeness and can’t wait to put on a good show for the fans. ”
Position : 11thTime : 1'34.506 Laps : 45
“All in all it has been a positive day. This morning we had a really good start and after FP2, I have to say that I’m satisfied with our rhythm as we used the same front tyre for the whole session, and were still able to improve our lap time at the end. We tried different geometric modification on the bike, but not everything went according to plan. So therefore, we went back to our setting from this morning and were able to improve again. This also gives me a lot of confidence for tomorrow and I think we are in better situation than in Jerez.”
More, from a press release issued by Movistar Yamaha:
Grand Prix of France
Action Begins in Le Mans for the Monster Energy Grand Prix de France
14:00 Local time GMT+2
Le Mans (France), 16th May 2014
Movistar Yamaha MotoGP riders Jorge Lorenzo and Valentino Rossi were back on track today at the historic Le Mans circuit in France, working through their first free practice sessions ahead of Sunday’s Monster Energy Grand Prix de France.
Lorenzo was able to make a half second improvement from the morning to the afternoon session as he focused on his set up. He led the second practice for most of the session, only dropping in the last ten minutes as his rivals switched to new rubber. He finished the day in seventh in the combined times, 0.6 seconds from first.
Teammate Rossi had a less fortunate day, the nine time world champion struggling in several set up areas on the notoriously unpredictable French track. Rossi ended the day in 10th place in the combined times, just over a second from the front.
7th / 1'34.054 / 21 laps
“I’m satisfied with the pace which is constant and with my riding. We are not in a position that reflects our performance in the time sheets; we were the only one with the same tyre the whole session instead of putting a new tyre on at the end or running an open tyre. I think with a new tyre we could have improved half a second at the end.”
10th / 1'34.498 / 21 laps
“I’m not happy about today, especially this afternoon. I wasn’t able to be strong and near the top. I have a lot of problems with the bike especially in acceleration, I have a big problem to open the throttle because the bike is very nervous. We tried to modify something during the practice but we didn’t fix the problem. I’m too far from the front so for tomorrow we have to check the data and improve to be more competitive; it is important to start in the top five here. The difference between Jerez and here for the settings is unbelievable so we have to change a lot of things. Le Mans is always like this!”
“We started today’s first practice with a base set up from our Jerez test last week. The first impressions from the morning were quite good. We then didn't make big changes between the sessions because we were expecting track conditions to improve in the afternoon to suit the setting of the bike better. Unfortunately the track did not improve for us that much. We made a change from the soft front to the medium for the afternoon and adjusted the electronics but we still need to make some steps forward for tomorrow. Jorge was very consistent; his place in the timings doesn’t necessarily reflect his performance. Vale is having more issues with his set up than Jorge so we have some work to do with his set up to be ready to step up for the third practice in the morning.”
More, from a press release issued by Bridgestone:
Marquez on record pace in Le Mans Friday practice
Round 5: French MotoGP™ - Free Practice 1&2
Le Mans, Friday May 16 2014
Bridgestone slick compounds available: Front: Extra-Soft, Soft & Medium; Rear: Extra-soft, Soft & Medium (Asymmetric)
Bridgestone wet tyre compounds available: Soft (Main) & Hard (Alternative)
Weather: FP1 - Dry. Ambient 12-14°C; Track 23-26°C (Bridgestone measurement)
FP2 - Dry. Ambient 20-20°C; Track 44-44°C (Bridgestone measurement)
Repsol Honda’s Marc Marquez led the field on the opening practice day for the French Grand Prix, as the current championship leader went quicker than the Le Mans Circuit Record with a time of 1’33.452 in Free Practice 2.
Marquez ended the day just 0.007 seconds ahead of Pramac Racing’s Andrea Iannone in second overall, while third quickest today was GO&FUN Honda Gresini’s Alvaro Bautista, who was 0.216 seconds behind Marquez. Marquez and Bautista set their quickest times on the combination of the soft compound rear and front slicks, while Iannone’s best time was achieved using the extra-soft rear slick paired with the soft front.
Fine track conditions greeted riders for Friday practice at the French Grand Prix, with track temperatures reaching a peak of 44°C during FP2. All slick options front and rear were evaluated by riders today but predictably, the riders opted for softer slick options front and rear in the cooler morning session. In the warmer FP2 session, many riders assessed their harder rear slick option; soft compound for the Ducati and Open-class riders and medium compound for the Factory Honda and Yamaha riders, but the softer rear options proved to be more popular on the low-grip Le Mans track. The higher track temperatures in FP2 also saw front tyre choice shift from the extra-soft to the soft compound front slick for most of the riders.
Shinji Aoki – Manager, Bridgestone Motorsport Tyre Development Department
“Warm and dry conditions gave us a good start to the race weekend here at Le Mans with the pace of the riders already extremely quick. Compared to last year’s Friday practice sessions, the riders on average are lapping around half a second quicker so as well as being safer, it seems our 2014 specification tyres have also given a boost to performance to the riders here at Le Mans. Similar conditions to today are forecast for the rest of the weekend, and I think some riders already have a good understanding of what their race tyre choice is, although more data will still need to be collected tomorrow. If the riders continue to push at this quick pace and can improve their setup further, I predict we will see some super-quick lap times in qualifying tomorrow.”
More, from a press release issued by NGM Mobile Forward Racing:
NGM Forward Racing at work at Le Mans
The first day of the French GP saw the NGM Forward Racing riders finishing in the top 15 on the historic track of Le Mans.
Aleix Espargaro set a lap time of 1’34.134, closing in 9th position in the combined classification, just +0.682 from the provisional pole scored by Marc Marquez. The Spaniard is confident to improve his lap times, aiming at finishing in the first rows in the qualifying.
It was day of work also for Colin Edwards who finished in 15th position with a best lap time of 1’35.089. Tomorrow the Texan rider will keep on working on the set up and the electronics of this Forward Yamaha and he is confident to improve his lap times.
“Today we focused on working on the set up of the machine. I struggled a bit to be consistent. In the afternoon we tried some solutions and we improved and tomorrow we will keep on working. My priority is to focus on the electronics and to be consistent lap after lap."
“I’m quite satisfied even though I expected to be more competitive with the soft tyre. We are in the top 10 and the gap from the front riders and the other Yamahas is not so big, so I’m quite confident for tomorrow and the race. We will keep on working aiming at finishing in the first 2 rows tomorrow in the qualifying."
More, from a press release issued by LCR Honda:
BRADL IN GOOD SHAPE AT LE MANS GP OPENING DAY
Le Mans, 16 May: MotoGP riders headed out for the first day of practices of the Grand Prix de France in unforeseen sunny conditions with Stefan Bradl lapping the “stop-and-go” circuit in 1’34.040. The German arrived in France with high expectations after the surgery he sustained last week to treat the arm-pump symptoms, and todays’ sixth fastest lap time confirms that Bradl is in a good shape.
Stefan: “Today we tried two different geometries of the bike which we tested already in Jerez testing day. The result so far is so and so as we had some advantages on the new geometry and some disadvantages on both bikes. We must find a clear solution for tomorrow because it seems that the new geometry is quite good but we still loose too much time in corner entry. Overall I am quite satisfied because the sixth position is not bad. I only had three laps on soft tyres at the end of session two and I made a small mistake in my flying lap passing another rider. Physically I am ok (just a small painkiller injection for my arm) so if we find the way to improve the bike we can go faster for sure”.
More, from a press release issued by Cardion AB Motoracing:
Abraham is on eighteenth position after first day in Le Mans
The MotoGP rider Karel Abraham reached eighteenth position with his fastest lap time in opening two practices of Grand Prix of France on legendary Le Mans circuit. The Czech rider stays in group of Honda riders with time 1:35,818 losing less than one second to the fastest ex world champion Nicky Hayden.
"Morning session was really terrible and nothing works as we expected. So our mechanics got lot of work to do over the lunch and they succeeded. Honda was better in the afternoon, but still not perfect. But we think to know the way to go so I´m quite optimistic. We stay close to Redding and Aoyama and I hope to be able to get closer or overtake them. We´ll see.”
Chief Mechanic Cardion AB Motoracing
“It was really difficult morning for us. The bike from Jerez didn´t work at all in Le Mans. In fact it had no grip on the rear and very bad feeling on the front. So we did lot of changes during the day to set the bike correctly. In the afternoon Karel got faster and stay close to Redding and Ayoama. It´s good news because he did it even he wasn´t able to do perfect lap. In every fast lap he did some mistake, which cost him some hundredths. Tomorrow we will focus on the setup to improve the front feeling and if Karel does a perfect lap, we will be able to get to the Top 15.”
More, from a press release issued by Pramac Racing:
Andrea Iannone seven hundredths of a second from the top, Yonny Hernandez close to the top ten
Andrea Iannone seven hundredths of a second from the top, Yonny Hernandez close to the top ten
Unusual sunny day at Le Mans circuit, that in past editions welcomed the MotoGP with bad weather. Andrea Iannone finishes this first day of practice closing by a hair from first position. Yonny Hernandez manages to improve reducing by more than half a second his best lap of the morning session.
Andrea Iannone - Pramac Racing - from the very first minute of the FP1 begun to work on the setup of its D16 to aim for the the positions that count. At the end of the session the Italian twenty-four year old had recorded twenty-one laps. The ranking of the first free practice session saw the first riders in less than a second, with the Pramac Racing rider in ninth position. Andrea also carried out an exceptional second session, stopping the clock just "007 to the fastest time recorded by Marquez with a lap time of 1'33"452.
Yonny Hernandez - EnergyT.I . Pramac Racing - uses the first free practice session to get in tune with the circuit he never faced before riding a Ducati, closing the session in sixteenth position. In the second session the Colombian makes a significant leap forward ending the session close to the top ten.
Andrea Iannone ( Pramac Racing)
"What can I say ... I'm very happy with how we ended the day. I am pleased to be only seven hundredths of a second from Marquez, who is dominating this championship from the start of the the season. We did a good job, I did the fastest lap time with the soft tire but here I’m fast even with that hard compound, I noticed that my race pace isn’t very different from the top riders and that is good for me. We will continue to work on the bike to improve some details and continue to aim for the top positions. "
Yonny Hernandez ( EnergyT.I . Pramac Racing)
"I'm happy because I was able to improve from the first practice session this morning and end the day in front of the Ducati rider Cal Crutchlow. Tomorrow I want to improve and I hope to do my best qualifying session ever. I'm working to use the soft tire in the race but there is still a lot of work to do with my technicians before deciding which compound to use. Fortunately, this year the weather is on our side. "
More, from a press release issued by Ducati Corse:
16 May 2014
MotoGP 2014 - Round 5 - Le Mans
Dovizioso eighth, Crutchlow thirteenth in French GP free practice at Le Mans
Today was a day of highs and lows for the Ducati Team at the Le Mans circuit in France. While Andrea Dovizioso managed to be competitive in the two free practice sessions, his British team-mate Cal Crutchlow struggled to find a good feeling with his Desmosedici GP14.
The Italian rider, seventh in the morning session when the temperature was quite cold, was even at the top of the timesheets for a short period of time in the afternoon, but after setting a best time in 1’34.117, had to settle for a provisional eighth place.
Crutchlow on the other hand encountered a few more problems, and despite knocking half a second off his time in the second session, was unable to establish a good feeling with his bike.
Andrea Dovizioso (Ducati Team #04) – 8th (1’34.117)
“I am very happy with the pace I had today when I lapped with the same tyres as the other riders. We are in the group at the front, in amongst the fastest riders, and this is positive. So I’m satisfied with the work we did today, even though I think that we can still improve the set-up. At the end of the session I didn’t put on another tyre because I had already set a good time and I was sure I was going to be in the top 10. In any case the weekend has started well and my feeling with this track here at Le Mans, is positive as always.”
Cal Crutchlow (Ducati Team #35) – 13th (1’34.907)
“It wasn't a good day for me; we tried a few different things with the bike but it felt exactly the same as always. Everything I tried with the settings, the bike feels like it has understeer and I cannot turn, so we lose in the braking area and in turning. It seems that nothing we tried at the test at Mugello is working here at the moment but we have to work with the team tonight and see what we can come up with for tomorrow because I have to improve.”
More, from a press release issued by Drive M7 Aspar Team:
DRIVE M7 ASPAR RIDERS MAKE CONSTANT PROGRESS IN FIRST DAY AT LE MANS
Nicky Hayden and Hiroshi Aoyama improve times from first to second sessions and plan improvements for day two
Marc Márquez set the pace as the MotoGP World Championship resumed with free practice for round five at Le Mans today but with just 0.007 seconds in it the series leader may not have it all his own way this weekend. Whilst on paper this 'stop and go' track is well suited to the Spaniard's Honda there was another manufacturer at the top of the timesheets today as Andrea Iannone sealed the second fastest time on his Ducati. Fourth placed Bradley Smith was the top Yamaha ahead of factory riders Jorge Lorenzo and Valentino Rossi.
DRIVE M7 Aspar pair Nicky Hayden and Hiroshi Aoyama both set their best times on lap seven of nineteen in the second session, when they noted improvements from the morning – the American finding eight tenths and the Japanese four tenths. Nicky ended the day in fourteenth position, two ahead of Hiro, with both riders sure of where they can improve tomorrow.
14th Nicky Hayden 1.34.961 (38 laps): “I don't want this to sound like an excuse but Le Mans has always been a tricky circuit for me. We haven't had great results here in the past and I don't enjoy the track as much as some other places. I knew my wrist would also be a problem but anyway it is a bit better than Jerez so we will have to see how it holds up for the rest of the weekend. Luckily the doctors at the Clinica Mobile are on the case, giving me treatment after each session, and even though we are still some way off the top in terms of lap times we have got a lot of work done in the two sessions today and took a big step from the morning to the afternoon. We are on the right lines and have some ideas for tomorrow.”
16th Hiroshi Aoyama 1.35.229 (39 laps): “I am happy because usually this is a difficult weekend in terms of the weather but today the conditions were very good. The track was quite cool this morning but the situation improved in the afternoon and we were able to work well and get a positive feel for the bike. Obviously we still have work to do to adapt the bike to the track but for the moment we are on the right lines. We improved our lap times significantly in the second session. Tomorrow we will try to improve the performance of the bike, especially in the slow corners.”
More, from a press release issued by Scott Redding's publicist:
Scott confident of improvement at Le Mans
Le Mans, France – 16 May 2014: Scott Redding ended the opening day at Le Mans 17th on the timesheet, despite a minor crash after losing the front in this afternoon’s second free practice session.
The 21-year-old Briton finished half-a-second off the time of former MotoGP World Champion and fellow Honda RCV1000R rider, Nicky Hayden, but remains confident that he can close the gap to the American in tomorrow’s free practice and qualifying sessions.
Scott Redding // 17th // 1'35.424
“The crash this afternoon was a result of the issues we’re having with front grip here at Le Mans, but everything is okay. I’m already fairly happy with the set up of the bike here but, just like at Jerez, it’s taking us some time to dial in the electronics. Having said that, we’re a bit closer to our rivals here at Le Mans, so we just need to keep going in the right direction. Tonight we will look to find settings to improve my confidence in the front and, if we succeed, I’m sure I can be up there with the fastest open class Hondas tomorrow.”
More, from a press release issued by Dorna:
Marquez on the pace on Friday afternoon
As the MotoGP™ action on the first day of the 2014 Monster Energy Grand Prix de France concluded at Le Mans, Marc Marquez outpaced his fellow premier class riders, leading the way from Andrea Iannone and Alvaro Bautista in FP2.
Having also topped the timesheet in the morning session, Marquez quickened the pace in the afternoon sunshine, registering a 1’33.452 best time, which is under the fastest lap in a race at Le Mans set by Dani Pedrosa in 2011.
Behind Repsol Honda man Marquez in FP2 was the impressive Iannone (Pramac Racing) who appears to be enjoying his riding more than ever this season. He was just 0.007s behind Marquez whilst GO&FUN Honda Gresini rider Bautista was just over 0.2s down.
Making up for a big crash in FP1, Bradley Smith (Monster Yamaha Tech3) was fourth best with a time less than 0.5s off Marquez’ pace – whilst Pedrosa was fifth with a similar pace to Smith.
Stefan Bradl (LCR Honda MotoGP), Jorge Lorenzo (Movistar Yamaha MotoGP), Andrea Dovizioso (Ducati Team) and Aleix Espargaro (NGM Forward Racing) were also within a top ten which was completed by Valentino Rossi (Movistar Yamaha MotoGP). Rossi produced a slight, late improvement to move up from 11th, despite a run off track towards the end of the session.
A crash for Moto2™ 2013 Le Mans race winner Scott Redding (GO&FUN Honda Gresini) with 15 minutes to go disrupted his FP2 workout at turn 9 but he was not hurt and went straight back out on a second bike.
A long run-off around turn 7 (Museum Corner) saw the older Espargaro brother do well to keep bike upright through the gravel.
Moto2™: Salom too quick for the rest at Le Mans
In the second Moto2™ practice at the Monster Energy Grand Prix de France on Friday rookie Luis Salom was the fastest rider on track, in front of Tito Rabat and Maverick Viñales, with a best lap right at the end of the session.
Pons HP 40 man Salom was already leading in the final stages but improved to 1’38.254 to end Friday ahead of his fellow intermediate class riders.
Rabat (Marc VDS Racing Team) also pushed hard late in the practice but was ultimately 0.06s off the pace of his young compatriot, with Viñales (Pons HP 40) in third by a 0.1s margin.
Dominique Aegerter (Technomag carXpert) was fractionally (0.004s) slower than Moto3™ World Champion Viñales in fourth, with Jonas Folger (AGR Team) making it three rookies in the top five.
Completing the top ten were Simone Corsi (NGM Forward Racing), Mika Kallio (Marc VDS Racing Team), Franco Morbidelli (Italtrans Racing Team), Julian Simon (Italtrans Racing Team) and Alex De Angelis (Tasca Racing Moto2).
A big crash for Thomas Luthi (Interwetten Paddock Moto2) early in FP2 at turn 3 saw a high speed lowside take him into the gravel, before Tetsuta Nagashima (Teluru Team JiR Webike) quickly rejoined having dropped his bike on track and then restarting at trackside.
Towards the end of the practice Sandro Cortese (Dynavolt Intact GP) crashed to end his session prematurely, but he, Luthi and Nagashima were all unharmed.
Moto3™: Alex Marquez sets down a marker in second practice
In the Moto3™ FP2 session on Friday afternoon at the Monster Energy Grand Prix de France it was Alex Marquez who notched the quickest lap of Le Mans, followed by Alex Rins and Jack Miller at the top.
Indeed the fastest ever lap of Le Mans on a Moto3 machine (1’43.395s) gave Marquez the lead in the session by 0.041s from his Estrella Galicia 0,0 teammate Rins, whilst Miller was third (0.048s).
FP1’s fastest rider Isaac Viñales (Calvo Team) and Italian youngster Enea Bastianini (Junior Team Go&FUN Moto3) were both in the top five.
Meanwhile, the top ten also featured Romano Fenati (SKY Racing Team VR46), John McPhee (SAXOPRINT RTG), Miguel Oliveira (Mahindra Racing), rookie Karel Hanika (Red Bull KTM Ajo) and Francesco Bagnaia (SKY Racing Team VR46).
There were light crashes for Alessandro Tonucci (CIP Mahindra) and Niccolo Antonelli (Junior Team GO&FUN) who were both able to continue, but French wildcard Reynald Castillon (Team RMS) was carried away from a highside and later ruled out of the rest of the weekend due a left wrist injury.